Pharmacology Assignment Help

PHARMACOLOGY ASSIGNMENT HELP

Welcome to the best website for pharmacology assignment help, for college and university homework, projects & dissertations. Our pharmacology assignment experts provide high-quality services for clinical development and trials, non-clinical studies, absorption, ADME, distribution, excretion, metabolism, non-clinical, non-clinical safety studies, non-clinical studies, non-clinical testing, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, pre-clinical, post-clinical safety studies, pre-clinical testing, microbiology and more. Get excellent support for Phoenix WinNonlin for PK/PD Analysis. Further, if you are looking for assignment help for any college or university subject or programming language, you are in the right place. We deliver urgent assignment help with guaranteed best results. Get instant assignment help for even the most complex projects. We will complete your pharmacology assignment & deliver it exactly when you need it. In case you have to submit an assignment at a very short notice, we offer 24 hour assignment help as well as last minute assignment help, where we can deliver your fully completed college or university assignments within 24 hours, or even earlier, if possible. In other words, if we accept your order, we will absolutely deliver it on the agreed date & time. Contact us any time of the night or day for Principles of Pharmacology assignment help.

Pharmacology Assignment Help

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WHAT IS PHARMACOLOGY?

Pharmacology is a discipline of medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, and biology that studies the uses, mechanism, actions, and harmful effects of drugs. Those studying or practicing Pharmacology are known as pharmacologists and they are usually scientists or medical doctors, who research the workings of medicines, explore the effects of different chemicals and drugs on human bodies, and seek to develop or find new medicines. Pharmacologists further use their knowledge of how different medicines work to aid in safe and effective uses of them for treating patients bringing in positive difference and recovery in their lives.

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Pharmacology also includes the study of biotransformation, excretion, drug composition, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular composition, toxicology, interactions, molecular diagnostics, medical applications, anthipathogenic capabilities, and therapy.

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HISTORY & ORIGINS OF PHARMACOLOGY

The origin of pharmacology has been recorded from 1st century BC when ancient medicine manuals from the Han Dynasty named Shennong Bencao Jing was recovered. It had consisted of forty volumes in which description of several thousands of prescriptions were made. Later in the 4th century several pioneering pharmacotherapeutic treatises were recovered which included Dioscorides’ five volumes De Materia Medica which he had written in the 1st century BC. This is widely considered in the history of pharmacology as the oldest and the most noteworthy work.

MEDEVIAL PHARMACOLOGY

During the middle ages, there were notable works of pharmacology such as Peter of Spain’s Commentary of Isaac, Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine, and John of St Amand’s Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. In these volumes, there were descriptions of traditional remedies generally of complex mixture of certain minerals and herbs which usually had doubtful efficacy and sporadic toxicity. However, over the centuries there was more scientific approach applied to this field. This led to an ancient discipline of Materia Medica that emphasized on discernment of origin, preparation, and therapeutic implementation of medicinal compounds advanced into an increasingly experimental as well as scientific branch of knowledge. For example, morphine was developed in the early 19th century by isolating it from the opium poppy.

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Starting from the 19th century there was a complete paradigm shift for the discipline of pharmacology as there were growing numbers of physiologists who started taking up pharmacologic studies. There were several active substances like atropine, strychnine, quinine, etc that had been isolated by French and German scientists. In the late 19th century, German scientist Oswald Schmeiderberg had firmly established the discipline of pharmacology and is now known as the Founder of Modern Pharmacology. He wrote a textbook on this discipline where he defined its very purpose. He later headed a school in Strasbourg which went on to become a core from where other independent departments of pharmacology were set up in universities across the world.

PHARMACOLOGY AFTER WWII

The 20th century was a turning point for the field of pharmacology especially in the years since World War II. Several new drugs were developed that are widely used to this day which includes Penicillin, Ibuprofen, or vaccines. Infectious diseases which were rampant before like syphilis and polio were now preventable through the use of curable via antibacterial and vaccines respectively. Great advancements were also made on the treatment of other chronic diseases like cancer, hypertension, depression, and diabetes.

CLASSIFICATION OF PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacology is broadly divided into two types- pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Both of these categories focuses on the interactions between medications and the body, and play a vital role in ascertaining a drug’s efficacy and safety. Hence, it is important to take into account both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics when prescribing medications so as to find out the correct dosage to guarantee the appropriate effect. These two categories are further elaborated below:

PHARMACOKINETICS ASSIGNMENT HELP

Pharmacokinetics or just PK is the study of the onset, absorption, distribution, metabolic rate, excretion, and intensity of the drug in the human body. In simple terms, PK helps in understanding what the body does to a drug once it is consumed. And in order to get the desired effects of a drug, it must be present at the sites of action in suitable concentrations. Patient-related factors and drug’s chemical properties are the determinants of pharmacokinetics of drugs. Genetic makeup, renal function, age, and sex are some of the patient-related factors that can be used in speculating parameters of PK in populations. PK is also affected by physiologic changes with aging. There are also some factors relating to individual physiology that have affects on PK as some of them cannot be reasonably predicted. Furthermore, due to individual differences administration of drugs to patients must be based on their individual needs through empirical adjustments of dosage till the therapeutic objective is achieved. However, this approach has often proven to be inadequate as it can slow down optimal response or elicit adverse effects. Therefore, PK is crucial to the prescribers as the knowledge in its principles can lead to adjustments of dosage more precisely and rapidly. And such application of principles of PK to particularize pharmacotherapy is known as therapeutic drug monitoring.

Our Pharmacology assignment writers provide full support for all Pharmacokinetics (PK) related assignment topics as well as all types of Pharmacokinetic analysis. Phoenix Winonlin Software is a popular software that is used for Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic analysis, that is PK/PD Analysis.

IMPORTANCE OF PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACOLOGISTS

The discipline of pharmacology is more than just a study of drugs and medicines. It is much deeper as it starts from molecular level to the political and social sphere. It also helps millions of people around the world lead healthier lives for longer period of time. Most medicines that are used globally each day are created by pharmacologists like antibiotics, hay fever tablets, cancer treatments, etc.

The following are few of the instances which would never have been possible without pharmacologists:

  • To discover new medicines that aid in fighting diseases.
  • To ascertain the safety of medicines.
  • To ascertain the reason why some medicines are efficacious to certain people as compared to others.
  • To ascertain the reason behind addictive features of some drugs.

Currently, pharmacologists around the world are engaged in the following roles:

  • Create new medicines to tackle new and existing diseases.
  • Identify and develop different methods of treatments when old ones become ineffective.
  • Explore the best options to effectively use existing medicines.
  • Identify new medicines.
  • Effectively deal with resistance to antibiotics.
  • Study the ageing process to ensure healthier and longer lives for all.
  • Carry out research with the objective of ensuring efficacy of medicines for all.
  • Help in ensuring that everyone is prescribed correct medicines.
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    WHAT ARE DRUGS?

    Drugs can be defined as a substance that can be either synthetic or natural that changes the physiological state of any living organisms if consumed or introduced into the body in any way. They are generally divided into two: medicinal drugs and non medicinal (social) drugs.

    • Medicinal drugs: This category of drugs is substances that have properties to prevent, treat, cure, and diagnose diseases.
    • Non medicinal (social) drugs: This category of drugs is used for recreational purposes and it includes drugs that are illegal such as heroine, cannabis, methamphetamines, cocaine, etc. Everyday substances like nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol also come under this category.

    Drugs can also be further classified into the following:

    • Pharmacological actions
    • Pharmacotherapeutic actions
    • Chemical nature
    • Molecular actions

    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    Pharmacology and pharmacy are not synonymous to each other as popularly believed by people. Pharmacology is mostly science-oriented as it is principally concerned with discovery, characterizations, and research of chemicals while pharmacy is a discipline that primarily focuses on direct patient care and administers drugs to these patients that have been developed and researched in pharmacology. The pharmacists unlike pharmacologists give out as well as advice patients regarding medicines that are already available. Additionally, the discipline of pharmacology is experimental and may not necessarily have curative or healing purposes.

    PHARMACODYNAMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP

    Pharmacodynamics or just PD is the study of the correlation between biological, physiologic, and molecular effects of drugs. The said effects can be displayed within humans or animals, microorganisms or even combination of organisms. It also includes postreceptor effects, receptor binding, and chemical interactions. In other words, PD helps understand the impact of drugs and how biological processes in the body respond to them. Hence, it is crucial to know both the location and mechanism of action for most drugs, at the different levels of functional system, tissue or organ. This mechanism of action can frequently be described in molecular as well as biological terms. And in the case of most drugs there is exertion of effects on various tissues or organs resulting in undesirable as well as therapeutic effects. For both wanted and unwanted or toxic effects, there is dose and response relationship which PD helps in understanding. The pharmacologic response is determined by the binding of drugs to its target and its concentration at the receptor site further impact the effect of drugs. Some of the factors in patients that can influence drug responses are:

    • Age
    • Race
    • Weight
    • Diet
    • Genetic Factors
    • Trauma
    • Disease/Any Other Disorder
    • Other Drugs

    Some of the disorders that affect the PD responses are thyrotoxicosis, genetic mutations, myasthenia gravis, malnutrition, Parkinson disease, and few forms of diabetes mellitus that are insulin-resistant. These disorders can decrease receptor sensitivity, remold receptor binding, or change the level of binding proteins. And in the case of aging, it has a tendency of affecting PD response through changes in postreceptor response sensitivity or receptor binding.

    CAREERS IN PHARMACOLOGY

    Medical Scientists: They are the ones that conduct researches and work behind the scene to achieve the objective of improving overall human health. They conduct studies to evaluate medical samples and data concerning with treatment and causes of chronic diseases, pathogens, and toxicity. Additionally, they develop tools for medical application, investigate diseases to help in their prevention and treatment, and systematize drugs for mass manufacturing. They also work jointly with other health care professionals to apply for funding.

    Pharmaceutical Marketing Managers: They are responsible for overseeing the development of branding for products that are newly developed. Additionally, they need to maintain marketing tactics and approach that were already established for existing products. Their aim is to make certain that the materials are well received by the public and physicians alike.

    Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives: They work in tandem with pharmaceutical and biotech companies. Their roles include engaging with potential and existing clients, introduced products to them that were developed within the organization, and finalize deals between the two parties.

    Medical Writer: The professional medical writers have the option to either work closely with physicians or with a pharmaceutical and biotech company. With the former, a medical writer can develop articles and research papers about their work; and with the latter, educational and sales material can be created. Such materials will often contain guidelines on the workings of a new product including its benefits and side effects. Furthermore, medical writers may also need to handle tasks like administrative writing as they are connected to pharmaceutical products which include contracts, license renewals, etc.

    Medical Liaisons: They are considered the main source of contact between physicians and big pharmaceutical companies. They play a crucial role as they not only represent and understand the perspectives of the pharmaceutical company, but can also explain the workings and benefits of drugs in molecular terms which can immensely help the physicians.

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